What Did Zhuge Liang Invent

What Did Zhuge Liang Invent

Zhuge Liang, styled Kongming, was the prime minister of Shu Han in Chinese history, and also an outstanding politician, military strategist, and inventor. He invented numerous practical tools and devices, making significant contributions to both warfare and civilian life at that time.


who was zhuge liang

Zhuge Liang (September 17, 181 – August 28, 234), styled Kongming, courtesy name Wolong, was born in Yangdu, Langya, Xu Province (present-day Yinan County, Shandong). During the Three Kingdoms period, he served as the chancellor of Shu Han and was an outstanding politician, military strategist, inventor, and literary figure in ancient China.


In his early years, Zhuge Liang accompanied his uncle Zhuge Xuan to Jing Province. After Zhuge Xuan's death, Zhuge Liang lived in seclusion at Longzhong. When Liu Bei sought refuge under Liu Biao in Jing Province, he thrice visited Zhuge Liang, who showcased his exceptional military talents. Successfully aiding Liu Bei in establishing the Shu Han regime, Zhuge Liang became the chancellor, was titled the Marquis of Wu, and appointed as the Governor of Yizhou. His aspirations focused on reclaiming the Central Plains and restoring the Han Dynasty, dedicating several decades to these endeavors. In his later years, he continued to labor for the stability of the country and the well-being of the people, ultimately passing away due to illness within the military. His life epitomized the phrase "devoting oneself entirely until death."


In politics, Zhuge Liang advocated for integrity and fairness, deeply influenced by Confucianism. His official career was characterized by integrity and selfless dedication. In his "Instructions for My Son," he shared his experiences and insights, emphasizing the importance of self-cultivation and frugality in nurturing virtue. Leading by example, Zhuge Liang made significant contributions to the establishment of a clean government in Shu Han.


In the military realm, Zhuge Liang was one of the most outstanding strategists of the Three Kingdoms period. Proficient in military strategy, he excelled in utilizing terrain, forces, and tactics in warfare. His tactics and strategies, such as the "empty fort strategy," "borrowing arrows with thatched boats," and "borrowing the east wind," became classics in Chinese military theory. Additionally, he invented numerous military devices and weapons, including the repeating crossbow, wooden ox, flowing horse, and landmines, significantly enhancing the army's combat capabilities and equipment.


In literature, while Zhuge Liang's works are not numerous, their quality is high. His writings, such as the "Memorial on Sending Troops" and "Instructions for My Son," are characterized by simple and natural language, sincere emotions, and express his deep concerns and care for the country and people. His poetry and prose also showcase his literary talent and artistic cultivation.


In summary, Zhuge Liang was a great politician, military strategist, inventor, and literary figure in Chinese history. His talents and wisdom made him a pillar of the Shu Han regime and a national hero. His life embodied diligence, loyalty, wisdom, and talent, with his thoughts and spirit inspiring future generations.


In later generations, Zhuge Liang has been honored as the "Wise Saint" and respectfully addressed as "Master Sleeping Dragon." His image has been portrayed as a wise, loyal, and benevolent prime minister in various forms of Chinese art, literature, drama, and film. However, there are differing opinions about Zhuge Liang. Some criticize his perceived weakness in dealing with relations with Eastern Wu, while others believe his favoritism towards Jiang Wei in succession matters led to political instability in later Shu Han. Nevertheless, these viewpoints do not diminish Zhuge Liang's significant position and outstanding contributions in Chinese history.


why is zhuge liang famous

Zhuge Liang became famous for several reasons:


Outstanding Talent and Wisdom: Zhuge Liang, the Chancellor of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period, is renowned as a brilliant politician, military strategist, inventor, and literary figure. His exceptional talent and wisdom, proficiency in military strategy, and creative problem-solving abilities in both politics and warfare contributed to his remarkable achievements.

Contribution to the Shu Han Regime: Zhuge Liang played a pivotal role in establishing and developing the Shu Han regime. His significant contributions through various political and military actions solidified Shu Han's position and laid the foundation for its subsequent development.

Loyalty and Benevolence: Zhuge Liang's life was marked by loyalty to Shu Han and the country. He spared no effort for the benefit of the nation and demonstrated qualities of loyalty and benevolence. He cared for the hardships of the people, emphasized livelihood, and proposed numerous policies and measures to improve people's lives.

Literary and Artistic Talent: Zhuge Liang's literary and artistic talents are another reason for his fame. Although the quantity of his works may not be extensive, their high quality reflects his deep concerns and care for the country and its people. His poetry and prose showcase his literary talent and artistic cultivation.

Historical Significance and Influence: Zhuge Liang holds a crucial position and influence in Chinese history. As a representative figure of ancient Chinese wisdom and culture, he is respectfully referred to as "Master Sleeping Dragon" and the "Wise Saint." His thoughts and spirit continue to inspire future generations, leaving a profound impact on Chinese history and culture.


In summary, Zhuge Liang became famous due to his outstanding talent and wisdom, significant contributions to the Shu Han regime and the country, loyalty and benevolence, literary and artistic talent, and his historical significance and influence. Additionally, his mythical image in folk tales, depicting him as a magical figure capable of controlling the weather and foreseeing the future, further solidified people's admiration and worship, contributing to his fame.


what did zhuge liang invent

Firstly, one of Zhuge Liang's most well-known inventions is the "wooden ox and flowing horse." This is a vehicle that utilizes mechanical principles to transport goods, capable of carrying large quantities of grain and military supplies over rugged mountain roads. During Zhuge Liang's northern campaigns, the wooden ox and flowing horse played a crucial role, effectively addressing transportation challenges and providing stable logistical support for the Shu Han army.


Secondly, Zhuge Liang invented a weapon known as the "repeating crossbow" or "continuous crossbow." This crossbow could fire arrows continuously, releasing ten arrows in a single round, significantly enhancing the bow's firing speed and lethality. In warfare, the formidable firepower of the repeating crossbow posed a significant threat to enemies, becoming one of the key weapons for the Shu Han army to overcome adversaries.


In addition to these, Zhuge Liang also devised a tactical formation known as the "Eight Diagrams Formation" or "Eight Trigrams Formation." This formation involved arranging troops based on factors such as terrain, forces, and weaponry, allowing flexible adaptation to different battlefield environments and enemy situations. In practical warfare, the Eight Diagrams Formation effectively dispersed enemy attacks, protecting the army from harm, and optimized soldiers' combat capabilities, enhancing the overall combat effectiveness of the army.


Furthermore, Zhuge Liang invented a tactic called the "fire attack strategy." This tactic involved using fire to attack and defeat enemies swiftly in battles. During his northern campaigns, Zhuge Liang successfully employed the fire attack strategy multiple times, defeating Cao Wei's forces and expanding the territory of Shu Han.


Beyond military inventions, Zhuge Liang also made creative contributions to civilian life. For instance, he invented an explosive device called the "landmine" used for clearing mines and a mechanical device called the "wooden beast" capable of digging wells for water retrieval. These inventions not only addressed practical issues for the people of that time but also laid the foundation for future technological developments.


In addition to the mentioned inventions, Zhuge Liang conducted in-depth research and provided insightful perspectives in the fields of military strategy, astronomy, geography, and more. His tactics such as the "empty fort strategy," "borrowing arrows with thatched boats," and "borrowing the east wind" not only played crucial roles in warfare but also became classics in military strategy for later generations.


zhuge liang quotes

Here are some of Zhuge Liang's famous sayings:


"Life in this world cannot always be as one wishes." This statement advises people that life cannot be perfect, and in the face of difficulties and setbacks, one should accept them bravely rather than complain or avoid.

"Do not do evil because it seems trivial, and do not refrain from doing good because it seems small." This saying cautions against engaging in wrongdoing, no matter how small it may seem, and encourages doing good deeds, regardless of their perceived insignificance.

"A noble-minded person is broad-minded, while a petty-minded person is always troubled." This phrase emphasizes the broad-mindedness of noble individuals and the narrow-mindedness of petty ones. A noble-minded person remains open-hearted, while a petty-minded person often feels troubled.

"Without being indifferent to fame and fortune, one cannot clarify one's aspirations; without tranquility, one cannot achieve lasting success." This quote suggests that to pursue significant achievements and greatness, one must adopt an attitude of indifference to fame and fortune and maintain inner tranquility without being swayed by external pressures.

"Desire to consider the benefits, and you must also consider the harm; desire to achieve, and you must also consider the failure." This expresses the wisdom of comprehensive thinking, indicating that when seeking personal benefits, one must also evaluate potential harms, and when striving for success, one must be vigilant against the possibility of failure.

"Do not be proud of your talent to show off, and do not use favoritism to intimidate others." This advice pertains to interpersonal relationships, cautioning against arrogance based on special abilities or using one's position to bully others. Zhuge Liang also reminds us not to rely solely on our abilities and neglect the importance of integrity.

"Indulgence and laziness cannot stimulate one's diligence, and recklessness cannot govern one's character." This emphasizes the importance of maintaining a balanced and composed approach in both work ethic and personal conduct, avoiding both complacency and impulsiveness.

"The young should not be idle; the old should not feel regret. One's talent must be cultivated, and without learning, talents cannot be expanded; without ambition, learning cannot lead to achievement." This serves as a admonition for the young to work diligently, encouraging them to learn and develop their talents. It also highlights the necessity of having ambition to turn knowledge into accomplishments.

"Those who contemplate the distant future are secure; those who consider the distant consequences are at ease; those who are thoughtless are in danger." This saying underscores the importance of foresight and careful consideration of future outcomes. Only by contemplating the distant future can one maintain stability and security, while thoughtlessness leads to danger.

"A noble person cultivates beauty in adulthood, not evil." This statement emphasizes the noble person's pursuit of virtue and avoidance of evil. A noble person should set an example through their actions and become a role model for others.



These sayings not only reflect Zhuge Liang's noble character and exceptional wisdom but also carry profound historical significance and cultural value. They inspire people to seek truth, maintain integrity, face difficulties courageously, think comprehensively, stay calm and steadfast, strive for excellence, pursue beauty and kindness, and uphold other positive values.


zhuge liang fan

The relationship between Zhuge Liang and the fan can be described as close. His fan is not only a personal accessory but also a symbol of his wisdom and image. In traditional Chinese culture, fans are often endowed with cultural and symbolic meanings, and the story of Zhuge Liang and the fan has become a well-known tale.


The image of Zhuge Liang holding a feather fan is deeply ingrained in people's minds. It is said that the feather fan he wielded was made from the feathers of white cranes, making it lightweight and elegant. This fan served not only as a personal adornment but also as a symbol of his intelligence and strategic acumen. When dealing with political and military affairs, Zhuge Liang was often seen with the fan, its gentle swaying reflecting his calmness and sagacity.


The feather fan in Zhuge Liang's hand is not just a symbol but also a unique personal emblem. Through this fan, people can sense Zhuge Liang's confidence and composure, showcasing his excellence as a political and military strategist. In artistic representations from later periods, Zhuge Liang's image is often closely associated with a feather fan, becoming a classic symbol in Chinese culture.


One widely circulated legend regarding Zhuge Liang and the fan tells of a banquet where he entertained various generals. Suddenly, a strong wind and heavy rain disrupted the gathering. Zhuge Liang calmly picked up his feather fan, lightly waved it, and the wind and rain immediately ceased. This legend adds a mystical aura to the fan, further elevating its status in people's minds.


This story reflects people's reverence and admiration for Zhuge Liang, accentuating the magical qualities attributed to the feather fan. This mystical depiction not only enhances the admiration for Zhuge Liang but also turns the fan into a magical artifact in people's imagination. This mystical quality further strengthens the fan's position as a unique cultural symbol.


Moreover, fans hold special significance and symbolic meanings in traditional Chinese culture. In ancient times, fans were often used as symbols for literati and scholars, representing their talents and wisdom. Fans were also employed as metaphors for noble virtues and sentiments. Therefore, Zhuge Liang holding a feather fan also symbolizes his talent, wisdom, and noble character.


In summary, the relationship between Zhuge Liang and the fan goes beyond being a mere accessory or symbol; it embodies cultural and historical heritage. Through the fan, we can feel Zhuge Liang's demeanor, wisdom, and exceptional talents. Additionally, the fan has become an important symbol in Chinese traditional culture, representing nobility in talent, wisdom, and character. Therefore, appreciating Zhuge Liang's fan allows us not only to admire his personal charm and wisdom but also to deeply experience the charm and values of Chinese culture.


Furthermore, the feather fan in Zhuge Liang's hand holds profound philosophical significance. In Zhuangzi's philosophy of "free and easy wandering," the emphasis is on a spirit of freedom and unconstraint. The image of Zhuge Liang holding a feather fan seems to convey this philosophy, facing the changes of the world with a light and free attitude, calmly dealing with various challenges and adversities. This philosophical concept has also become a source of inspiration for cultural and artistic expressions in later generations.


In conclusion, Zhuge Liang's fan is not just a personal accessory or symbol; it is a reflection of his wisdom, demeanor, and philosophical thoughts. Through this small item, we can deeply experience the charm and values of Chinese culture, appreciate Zhuge Liang's personal charisma and wisdom, and recognize the fan as one of the classic symbols in Chinese culture.




In summary, Zhuge Liang was a versatile and highly educated historical figure. His inventions not only held significant importance and influence in his time but also had a profound impact on the subsequent development of technology, culture, and society. Through Zhuge Liang's inventions and innovations, we can observe the wisdom, creativity, and leadership qualities inherent in this great individual. His inventions not only showcase his talents and intellect but also provide us with a valuable insight: continuous innovation and exploration are essential to drive the progress and development of human society.




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